Interconnected Issues and Solutions in Tanzania

Mastitis. Empowering women. Antimicrobial resistance. Human nutrition. Nest boxes. School enrollment. Cow comfort. Human wellbeing. How are all these diverse topics related? During our time working with Africa Bridge, Vets Without Borders, and smallholder farmers in the Youth Volunteer Program, we gained a deeper understanding of these connections and got to know the importance of a One Health and One Welfare approach.

The Tanzanian farmers in the Rungwe district are quite new to farming, having only received dairy cattle in the last few years. As mentioned in our last blog, one of the topics of our seminars was mastitis. We tackled this topic using two approaches, advising on best milking procedures and improving cow hygiene by building stalls. The Co-op members were eager to implement some of the lessons to reduce the incidence of mastitis in their cows- but why is this so important? Though mastitis adversely affects the well-being of the cow, this disease impacts much more than the animal itself. Cows will produce less milk and the milk will be of poorer quality. This impacts the health, safety, and financial wellbeing of not only the farmers, but also their families and community members.

Milk diversifies the diet of Co-op families by providing minerals, essential vitamins, and nutrients that the average family may not receive from their everyday diets. This in turn helps improve family health. Healthy children may perform better in school and have more opportunity reach their full potential. If cows do not provide enough milk, the family must decide between consuming the milk themselves or making a small profit from selling the milk. Poor quality milk caused by mastitis is a possible source of pathogens that can contribute to food borne illness. The bacteria causing mastitis in cows and possible illness in people are found in the environment the cows are in contact with, so maintaining a clean cow shed and having a comfortable place for the cow to lay is a key part of the puzzle.

One aspect of our seminars trained on proper milking protocols to prevent mastitis. This consisted of a theoretical seminar explaining the importance and benefits of keeping cows mastitis-free followed by a practical session during which we demonstrated these procedures at local farms to help the farmers better understand this process in practice. The practical sessions also included the demonstration of the California Mastitis Test, which is a fast and simple test for the early detection of mastitis in the udder.

We explained the importance of treating mastitis using the correct dose of antibiotics but feel this is a great topic to expand upon in future years. Proper use of antibiotics by farmers and veterinarians worldwide is essential to reduce the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance, where bacteria evolve quickly to resist the action of currently available antibiotics. This has enormous impact on not only human and animal health, but also the environment. Currently, it is estimated that 700,000 deaths occur annually due to antimicrobial resistance but this number will increase greatly in the next 30 years, with a projected 10 million annual deaths by 2050.

Katarina Nedeljakova preforming a California Mastitis test with the Cow Co-op members of Kibatata Village.

The other aspect of our seminars explained to farmers how providing and maintaining stalls for their cows can minimize contamination of the udder by bacteria living in the environment. Not only do stalls keep the cows clean, but they also improve the comfort of the cow- meaning she will produce more milk! Producing more milk not only boosts human nutrition, but also provides economic opportunities to farmers. With profits from Co-op animals, farmers have been able to pay for school supplies, uniforms, or even furnish their houses with solar panels. Improved welfare for the cow will also improve the wellbeing of the Co-op families by increased health as well as greater economic and educational opportunities.

This is the principle of One Welfare, where just like One Health, the welfare of animals, humans and the well-being of the environment are interconnected. Though stalls are quite a large investment, we were able to train the extension workers from the villages in Kisondela Ward on how to construct the stalls. Once farmers have begun to profit from the milk sales through small improvements in animal husbandry, they can reinvest these profits to further improve the well-being of their cows. This is a positive cycle of profit and investment, with an eventual surplus that can be spent on family matters such as education.

Working together building a stall in Isuba Village!

The training of the Chicken Co-op members was another major focus of our summer. Like cows, chickens can also help diversify the diets of families. A healthy chicken can lay about 200 to 300 eggs a year, which either be consumed directly or kept with the hen to hatch chicks. Excess chickens and eggs can be sold for profit to support the Co-op members. Hen comfort is one aspect that contributes to egg production and hatching rates- the more comfortable the hen is, the more likely it is that she stays in her nest. Having a nest box in which hens can feel safe and comfortable is the first step to achieving this goal.

Our chick management seminars included practical sessions in which we guided Chicken Co-op members in constructing a nest box for their coop. In an unexpected turn of events, in addition to promoting animal health and welfare, gender equality also became a major theme of these seminars. During the nest box building sessions, men would automatically take the lead in planning and constructing the nest boxes while most of the women watched from the side. However, once they were given the opportunity to take part in the session most of the women were willing and enthusiastic to contribute to the project, from helping plan the nest boxes to hammering nails and sawing wood.

Chicken Co-op members Halima Noa and Noel Seme building a nest box in Ndobe Village.

 Again, One Health and One Welfare are shown to have a large impact on the success of international development initiatives as well as the well-being of smallholder farmers and their animals. Throughout the summer, we had the pleasure of being invited to the homes of many Co-op members and hearing how receiving the cows or chickens and appropriate training has directly impacted them and their families. Tabia Tujobe Mwakabuli is a Chicken Co-op member in Kambasegela Village who was gifted ten chickens last summer.

Tabia was selected by Africa Bridge as she is currently supporting her 19-year-old niece and her niece’s child. Now, she has 19 chicks and Tabia and her family consume the eggs for improved nutrition. Tabia is diligent in her animal husbandry and is determined to excel in the project. She hopes to start selling eggs and chickens for profit in the coming months to better support her family. We also had a chance to visit Chicken Co-op members Lupe Anudlele Mwakifumbwa and Ruth Lupe Mwakifumbwa from Lutete Village, who are currently supporting 7 children and one grandson. Though they started with four hens and one rooster in 2017, Ruth and Lupe now have about 40 chickens! They commented on how the seminars helped improve their animal care practices and how the profits they make through selling eggs and chickens contribute toward their childrens’ education.

Chicken Co-op member Tabia Tujobe Mwakabuli of Kambasegela Village and her chickens.
Chicken Co-op members Lupe Anudlele Mwakifumbwa and Ruth Lupe Mwakifumbwa from Lutete Village with their chickens.

Overall, we are very grateful to have had participated in the Youth Volunteers 2019 Program. Working with Africa Bridge this summer, it felt like we were learning as much (if not more) than we were teaching. Coming back to Canada, we have definitely gained a new outlook on the meaning of sustainable international development and animal health practices worldwide. Though we will miss Tukuyu, we are eager to apply these lessons back home and continue participating in international development in the future!

What is One Health, and what does it have to do with a Veterinarians without Borders project?

Actually, quite a lot.

A major component of our work here in Mukurewe-ini, Kenya, this year is teaching dairy farmers about zoonotic diseases (diseases that can be shared between people and animals), and how to prevent them. We focus on some of the most serious zoonotic diseases that are of greater concern in central Kenya: rabies, anthrax, rift valley fever, brucella, bovine tuberculosis, and internal parasites and other diarrhea causing pathogens. The most interesting part of teaching these seminars is that some of the farmers have already experienced some of these diseases – in themselves, their animals, or in their community.

Stories of people getting sick from slaughtering and eating an animal with anthrax are not uncommon. A friend a farmer knows cuts themselves with a knife they were using to butcher a cow that died (due to anthrax); the wound becomes infected; the rest of the family that ate that meat were hospitalized shortly after. Others know people in their community who died from anthrax after slaughtering a sick or deceased cow. It is also not uncommon to hear of people who went to the hospital for treatment when they became ill with a disease they contracted through drinking their cow’s raw milk (which can contain pathogens like brucella). Farmers are heavily dependent on their livestock as a source of food and income. When an animal dies due to disease the financial loss and subsequent food insecurity causes a considerable negative impact. For these reasons sick or deceased animals will be used as food unless farmers are made aware of risks, and supports are in place to improve food security by preventing animal disease in the first place.

Laura and Priscilla teaching about zoonotic disease prevention in humans at one of the on farm seminars.

Perhaps the saddest of stories we hear though, are the ones about rabies. During the time that we have been working in Kenya, multiple human rabies fatalities have been reported. In Kisumu County, about 6 hours from Mukurwe-ini, two children died of dog bites, in addition to several other people who were affected. The parents of the children were unable to afford the rabies treatment at the hospital, and instead opted to take them to an herbalist. When they returned to the hospital, the rabies treatment was out of stock. Both children died within days. In a neighbouring county to Mukurwe-ini, Murang’a, an outbreak occurred last summer, where a three-year-old boy succumbed to rabies. This is why we also teach seminars in schools to children about rabies prevention. In our sessions, they learn what the disease is, how they can get it, how to safely interact with dogs to avoid dog bites, and what to do in the case that they are bitten by a dog. We also teach safety around cows, and how to avoid getting other zoonotic diseases from the animals on their farms. The reception from teachers and students alike are often strong – most everyone comes from a farming background in this area, and everyone comes into contact with roaming dogs in the community. Teachers and students often express how they have learned new, practical, advice from the sessions.

Effective prevention of rabies in Kenya involves teaching people about the importance of vaccinating dogs and how to safely interact with dogs to avoid getting bitten.

So how does this tie into the One Health? And what is One Health?

The One Health approach recognizes that animals, people, and the environment are all interconnected. This approach understands that for a population to thrive, the animals in it and the environment that supports it must also be healthy. It is a critical problem-solving approach, as the same diseases that infect people live either within the environment or the animal population. For example, rabies in Kenya is best prevented in people by vaccinating dogs against the disease. Anthrax is controlled in populations by vaccinating cows against the disease in regions where it is prevalent, which prevents the spread of the bacteria amongst animals, to people, and also back into the soil, where it can survive for decades.

Teaching farmers and kids about the risks of zoonotic diseases empowers them with the knowledge to prevent these diseases in themselves and their animals. Reducing outbreaks of these diseases in animals reduces the likelihood that people will be infected, and vice versa. If the majority of dogs in Kenya were vaccinated against rabies, rabies deaths in people would become very rare. If at risk cows were vaccinated against anthrax, the incidence of anthrax infections in people would also be reduced. There would be fewer bacterial spores introduced into the soil, and fewer animals would be infected in the future, slowing the cycle of anthrax infections in Kenya’s domestic animal and wildlife populations. By alleviating animal suffering, we are also alleviating human suffering.

Lexie with schoolkids at Ithanji Primary School

Zoonoses risk is not exclusive to Kenya. Rabies has always posed a public health threat in Canada; however, the major risk is in wildlife populations as compared to dogs in Kenya. Most recently, the death of a British Columbia man from an infected bat bite made national headlines. The One Health concept doesn’t just apply to Kenya; in Canada, healthy wildlife and pets protects the health of humans, especially in the case of rabies. The One Health approach transcends borders and economic status.

With many farmers in Kenya still engaging in practices such as drinking raw milk, eating sick or dead animals, and not safely handling sick animals, the need for zoonotic disease training is an important step to reduce the burden of zoonotic diseases. Improving animal and human health improves productivity, which increases financial stability. People who are caught in a cycle of poverty carry a greater cost to making choices that benefit their community and environment long term at the expense of a small personal benefit. Helping people reach stable ground in terms of finances and health will improve the welfare of people and animals and benefit the local environment. This is the very core of the One Health concept – and the work that VWB is doing in Kenya to build capacity in farmers and children in how to prevent serious zoonotic diseases.

This project is funded by Global Affairs Canada, and also collaborates with the Sir James Dunn Animal Welfare Centre based in Prince Edward Island.

Rabies outbreak in Kisumu, Kenya:

Rabies case in British Columbia, Canada:

Rabies case in Murang’a, Kenya:


Young Volunteers in Tukuyu!

The Veterinarians Without Borders young volunteer program in Tanzania has had a delayed start but everyone is finally here and eager to begin our work with the staff of the non-governmental organization, Africa Bridge. Now working out of Tukuyu, Africa Bridge has been operational since 2005 and works to empower and assist families with vulnerable and orphaned children.  Their methods not only include local district officials, but also the adults and children in each ward they work with. Obtaining local input in selecting projects specific to each area allows the families Africa Bridge works with to have a greater impact and hopefully be most sustainable in the future. Each family gets to choose which of the selected projects they personally wish to be a part of.  The current projects that have been chosen involve dairy cattle, chickens, and avocadoes…this is where we come in!  Katy and I will be here until mid August and Megan and Dr. Gimbi (pictured below) have been travelling and mentoring us for the first weeks to help us settle in and plan our work for the rest of the summer.

Our Vets Without Borders team at our arrival at Songwe Airport in Mbeya, Rungwe District Tanzania. Left to Right: Megan White, Nicole Burcar, Dr. Angaza Gimbi, Katarina Nedeljakova

By supplying families and schools with these farm animals, Africa Bridge creates a sustainable way to empower families and in turn help the communities. To ensure this project has a long-term impact, the families given donations from Africa Bridge pass on the first calf, clutch of chicks, or avocado seedlings to other families, increasing the livelihood of many village members. Currently, 156 cows and 8 bulls, 1545 chickens, and 4450 avocados have been given to households in six different villages in the Kisondela ward. In the Kambasegala ward, 550 chickens have been given out in three different villages.  Since recipients are typically new to the agriculture industry, Africa Bridge provides extensive training to help farmers best take care of their animals and in turn be more profitable. Our roles will be linked to this initiative- leading training seminars, creating fact sheets, and listening to the farmers individual concerns are just a few of the tasks we aim to accomplish this summer.

50 Grafted Avocado Seedlings are given to families with 4 hens and 1 rooster, otherwise families can receive 9 hens and 1 rooster.

he chicken coop of Mpaki Benad where he has many sources of food and water available for his chickens as well as the added enrichment of hanging greens, which also provide the chickens with essential vitamins.

We spent the first weeks of our placement getting to know the local communities and conversing with farmers to identify the current issues the villages are facing. Our first task was to help with pregnancy diagnosis of the Africa Bridge co-op cows. The reproductive status of the cows can give us a lot of information about challenges farmers may be facing. This is typically done here by rectal palpation 3-5 months after cows were exposed to a bull. It is important for farmers to know whether their cows are pregnant to optimize their reproductive performance, resulting in increased milk production and economic gain. We also had the opportunity to introduce ourselves to the communities before going back the following week for our mentoring visits.

Nicole Burcar performing rectal palpation with the help of Noel Msuha, the agriculture specialist at Africa Bridge.

After a few busy days of pregnancy diagnosis, we returned to the villages for mentoring visits. This involved visiting each of the villages to identify the full range of their successes and challenges, not only related to reproduction. We also visited some of the co-op chickens. This will help both us as a volunteer team and Africa Bridge better tailor training programs to be the most beneficial to farmers. We visited a few farms in each ward, then met with all of the co-op members and extension workers in each village.

Our first stop was the Kambasegala ward to visit families with chickens. When visiting these households our objective was to ask the farmers questions to assess their current situations. We found that though farmers had done a great job in the basic construction of their chicken coops, some construction modifications and adjustments in terms of management could be made to optimize their production. This becomes especially important to successfully  hatch and raise chicks. We found that our observations matched the concerns that were brought up in the village meeting, but the community members also brought up some additional concerns such as handling vaccinations for their birds.

A group of co-op members with our VWB and Africa Bridge team from Mbambo village in the Kambasegela ward after our mentoring visit.

Our next stop was the Kisondela ward, where Africa Bridge has given out both cattle and chickens.  Regarding the hens, there were some similar concerns in this ward compared to Kambasegela. It was interesting to compare and contrast the management styles between the two wards, and since we identified some similar challenges we have a better idea of how to make our teaching program more focused.  We also visited different families who had co-op cows to ask them more about the care of these animals and the progress they have made since being given these cows about 2 years ago. Again, we found some strengths and weaknesses in their management, but this is understandable as they are new to dairy farming. The infrastructure in the area also leads to challenges, meaning that both us and the farmers have to get creative in constructing more versatile solutions that are specific to this area.

Noel, Fele, Puri, Dr. Gimbi, Nicole and Katy observing the behavior of Fele’s cow as well as his stall and pen construction. His cow preferred to lie down in the outdoor portion since the soil is softer and comfortable.

Based on discussions between the Africa Bridge staff and ourselves after seeing the different farms and receiving feedback from the co-op members, we decided the topic that would be most useful to teach about regarding dairy cattle is mastitis. Mastitis is an infection of the udder, which can have a negative impact on milk quality and milk production. Cows all over the world can be afflicted with mastitis and it can be difficult to treat so we will be teaching about different ways to prevent mastitis. Farmers in both wards have noted this being a problem. We will train on proper milking procedures and we will also help farmers construct stalls for their cows. The cow pens we observed were mostly very clean but the stalls will also help keep the cows more clean and comfortable to not only reduce the amount of mastitis but also help them produce more milk. Cow comfort may be an issue that is overlooked even in Canada, but cows that are more comfortable and lay down more do produce more milk, which will therefore help create more economic opportunities for these families.  For the chicken co-op members, we have decided to focus the training seminars on chick management. This includes providing information on brooding and nest boxes, as well as chick housing and feed information. An increased knowledge of chick management will help farmers ensure high survival rates among their chicks and increase the productivity of their flocks.

Another mentoring visit in Ndobe Village where we took note of the farmer questions and concerns regarding their chickens and cows.

We have spent time making a plan for the rest of our time here and we hope to visit each village again to train on chick management and mastitis. We feel like these will be manageable expectations and hopefully we will created training seminars that farmers will remember and they will be able to apply those lessons on their farms.  That’s all for now, in our next post we hope to be able to share the progress of our seminars with the co-op members here in the Rungwe district of Tanzania. We look forward to meeting more farmers and learning more about the agriculture industry in this district.

About the authors:

Nicole is also a student veterinarian at the Ontario Veterinary College. Nicole completed a BSc (Agricultural and Environmental Sciences) at McGill University. She is interested in practicing bovine medicine in the future and hopes to be able to use her experience with livestock to make some positive impact in the Kambasegela and Kisondela wards but also learn about the practices and challenges of small holder farmers in this region.

Katarina is a student in her final year of completing a BSc in Plant Biology with an embedded certificate in Sustainability Studies at the University of Calgary. When not studying plants, she spends her time hanging out with goats at a small farm outside of Calgary. In the future, she hopes to further study sustainable agricultural methods both in Canada and around the world.

Akwaaba from Ghana!

Akwaaba (“Welcome” in Twi) from Accra; Ghana’s capital city. With a metropolitan population of 4.3 million people Accra is a bustling city constantly on the go. Living in Accra is to be constantly surrounded by heat and humidity, as well as the smells of people’s perfume, street food stalls, and diesel fumes that allow vehicles to continue driving even during flood conditions. We arrived during the beginning of the rainy season, so humidity is high, and rain is becoming almost a daily occurrence; sometimes gentle and warm, sometimes torrential and dangerous.

Our home in Kpeshi, Accra, Ghana.


We’ve arrived and are all living together like one big family in our Barbie dreamhouse pink house in Kpeshie, a suburb of Accra. We will be spending half of our time here in Accra, with the remainder spent in rural Northern Ghana with one group in Yua and the other in Sirigu. The amenities in Accra are better than any of us were expecting with our own kitchen, plenty of bathrooms, and lots of overhead fans to help keep us cool. Two of our group (Heather Bauman and Madison Russel) have been in Africa previously and so had a better idea of what to expect, while the others (Heather Ellis and Mark Rossi) have not traveled outside North America or Europe.

Kwame Nkrumah Mausoleum for the founder of Ghana, in Accra.

We spent our first days getting Ghanaian phone numbers, groceries, trying local food, and going to beaches. We also got to meet our wonderful neighbour, Jennifer Agazere, and seeing some culturally significant landmarks while we tried to acclimatize to the heat. Some of the first places we visited were Independence square, the museum for Ghana’s founder Kwame Nkrumah, and the local artists market. We learned much about Ghana’s independence from Britain, which they gained in 1957, a brief 2 years before Newfoundland became part of Canada. We are also doing our best to support small crafters in the local economy, visiting markets to buy food and purchase gifts for our loved ones back home.

We are here to help small rural subsistence farmers increase their animals’ health and wellbeing by counselling in animal nutrition, importance of vaccination and deworming protocols, and appropriate housing. We can then troubleshoot the issues they face with limited resources, remote locations, and using only locally available materials that are environmentally friendly. This should have the trickle-down affect of increasing the production value of their animals, which will help raise the level of their families’ nutrition and their income. We hope this will increase the local populations and environmental health in the area as well. Since women are more likely to be the owners or poultry, and those that care for most of the small farmers livestock, we assist in empowering women in their communities. We are going to achieve this by running educational workshops, working with farmers one on one to troubleshoot issues, working with local women’s groups, and providing free vaccination and deworming to local animals.

The rest of the small herd of Nigerian Dwarf Goats waiting their turn for deworming and vitamin injections.

Heather Bauman deworming a Nigerian Dwarf Goat owned by a local farmer, being assisted with restraint of the goat by local partner and Veterinary Health Technician Isaac Bentil.

We are working with the Ghanaian Poultry Network (GAPNET) run by Ghana veterinarian Dr. Anthony Nsoh Akunzule, and organization that runs educational workshops and seminars to help farmers learn how to get the most out of their animals. Our local supervisor is Dr. Geoffrey Akabua, a veterinarian that has practiced both in Canada and Ghana and a great go-between for the differences between veterinary practice in Canada and Ghana. Gloria Essel, and employee of GAPNET and a fast friend, has been helping us get settled in our new home for the next three months. She is making sure we know where to get groceries and supplies, helping us plan weekend entertainment, and showing us culturally significant landmarks around southern Ghana. She has taken us to things such as Elmina Castle, a dark reminder of the history of the slave trade in West Africa, Boti waterfalls, and the Kakum National Park and the famous Canopy Walk which is 40 metres above the forest floor.